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audience-restricted tokens

Some APIs require that the access_tokens are audience-restricted, ie. should have a specific ´aud´ value.

When multiple organizations offer identical APIs protected by the same Oauth2 scope value, they are vulnerable for token replay attacks.

Example showing token replay: Both Bank1 and Bank2 offer the same API for customer account information. If Bank1 receives a valid access_token, it can craft an API request using this token to Bank2, and thus get information related to the customers of their competitors.

Audience-restiction mitigates this attack, by binding the token to a specific audience (aud-value). Typically, the URL of the target API (resource server) is used as aud-value, but this can be chosed freely by the API owner. A pre-requisite for audience-restriction to work, is that the APIs validate that their expected aud-value is present in the token.

Most APIs protected by Maskinporten/ID-porten do not require audience-restriction, please contact the API owner to obtain the aud-value to be used.

Audience-restriction is standardized in RFC8707: Resource Indicators


The client includes the resource-claim in the JWT grant in order trigger audience-restriction.


The resulting access token will include the target resource value in the aud-claim.

If audience-restriction is not used, then aud will currently contain the value unspecified. In the future, Maskinporten will not include aud-claim when audience restriction is not used.